Brahmagupta was an Indian astronomer and mathematician who lived from 598 to 668 CE. He wrote the philosophic book “Brahmasphutasiddhanta” and the “Khandakhadyaka,” a much more practical instruction in science and mathematics. He was the first mathematician to devise formulas for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral. His contributions to geometry are substantial. Brahmagupta was the first to provide guidelines for calculating with zero.
Early Life: Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta was born in 598 CE. He resided in Bhillamala, presently Bhinmal, in Rajasthan, although during the reign of the Chavda dynasty ruler, Vyagrahamukha. He was always focused to work finding new concepts. Brahmagupta studied the five classic Siddhantas of Indian astronomy but also the learning of many other astronomers, including Aryabhata I, Latadeva, Pradyumna, Varahamihira, Simha, Srisena, Vijayanandin, and Vishnuchandra. Somewhere at the age of 30, he authored and introduced the book named Brahmasphutasiddhanta, which itself is regarded to be a revised version of the recognized Siddhanta of the Brahmapaksha institution of astronomy.
Brahmagupta made a significant contribution to astronomy, including techniques for estimating the location of celestial bodies over a period, their emerging and setting, connectives, and the computation of lunar and solar eclipses. Brahmagupta said that because the Moon is closer to the Ground than the sun, the degree of the lit section of the Moon is determined by the Sun’s and Moon’s relative positions, which can be calculated using the size of the separation between the two objects.
Many cultures including Brahmagupta were aware of the four fundamental functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The present system relied on the Hindu-Arabic number system and was originally used in the Brahmasphutasiddhanta. Brahmagupta described the four different multiplication approaches in his book. One of those four approaches, named gom? trik? is identical to the present-day’s multiplication technique. In Middle Ages, Indian arithmetic was called modus Indorum, which translates as “Indian way.”
Brahmagupta also determined the combination of the squares and cubes of the first n numbers. During this determination, and found the answer in terms of the sum of the first n integers, instead of n, as is common nowadays.
The Brahmasphutasiddhanta is considered the first recognized literature to regard zero as a figure in and of itself, instead of as a placeholder digit in expressing another number, as the Babylonians did, or as a sign for lack of amount, as Ptolemy and the Romans did. Brahma Gupta later defined that 0 / 0 = 0, meaning that when zero is divided from zero then it is equal to zero. But, he did not explain the equation a / 0 where a≠ 0. However, he stated that if any type of value (numeric) is divided by zero, it yields a total zero.
It is believed that he died between the years 660 and 670 CE. Many sources have stated that he lived till 668 CE. He is regarded as one of the greatest Indian mathematicians of all time. His efforts in mathematics and science have made significant distinctions in many mathematical problems by creating the fundamental rules that now allow us to solve most problems.